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Директива ЕС 2004/48/EC О защите прав на объекты интеллектуальной собственности (на английском языке)

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DIRECTIVE 2004/48/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL
of 29 April 2004
on the enforcement
of intellectual property rights

(Text with EEA relevance)

 

THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,
Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Article 95
thereof,
Having regard to the proposal from the Commission,
Having regard to the Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee 1,
After consulting the Committee of the Regions,
Acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 251 of the Treaty 2,

Whereas:

(1) The achievement of the Internal Market entails eliminating restrictions on freedom of
movement and distortions of competition, while creating an environment conducive to
innovation and investment. In this context, the protection of intellectual property is an
essential element for the success of the Internal Market. The protection of intellectual
property is important not only for promoting innovation and creativity, but also for
developing employment and improving competitiveness.
(2) The protection of intellectual property should allow the inventor or creator to derive a
legitimate profit from his invention or creation. It should also allow the widest possible
dissemination of works, ideas and new know-how. At the same time, it should not hamper
freedom of expression, the free movement of information, or the protection of personal data,
including on the Internet.
(3) However, without effective means of enforcing intellectual property rights, innovation and
creativity are discouraged and investment diminished. It is therefore necessary to ensure that
the substantive law on intellectual property, which is nowadays largely part of the
acquis communautaire, is applied effectively in the Community. In this respect, the means of
enforcing intellectual property rights are of paramount importance for the success of the
Internal Market.
(4) At international level, all Member States, as well as the Community itself as regards matters
within its competence, are bound by the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual
Property (the "TRIPS Agreement"), approved, as part of the multilateral negotiations of the
Uruguay Round, by Council Decision 94/800/EC 1 and concluded in the framework of the
World Trade Organisation.
(5) The TRIPS Agreement contains, in particular, provisions on the means of enforcing
intellectual property rights, which are common standards applicable at international level and
implemented in all Member States. This Directive should not affect Member States'
international obligations, including those under the TRIPS Agreement.
(6) There are also international conventions to which all Member States are parties and which
also contain provisions on the means of enforcing intellectual property rights. These include,
in particular, the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, the
Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, and the
Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and
Broadcasting Organisations.

It emerges from the consultations held by the Commission on this question that, in the
Member States, and despite the TRIPS Agreement, there are still major disparities as regards
the means of enforcing intellectual property rights. For instance, the arrangements for
applying provisional measures, which are used in particular to preserve evidence, the
calculation of damages, or the arrangements for applying injunctions, vary widely from one
Member State to another. In some Member States, there are no measures, procedures and
remedies such as the right of information and the recall, at the infringer's expense, of the
infringing goods placed on the market.
(8) The disparities between the systems of the Member States as regards the means of enforcing
intellectual property rights are prejudicial to the proper functioning of the Internal Market and
make it impossible to ensure that intellectual property rights enjoy an equivalent level of
protection throughout the Community. This situation does not promote free movement within
the Internal Market or create an environment conducive to healthy competition.
(9) The current disparities also lead to a weakening of the substantive law on intellectual property
and to a fragmentation of the Internal Market in this field. This causes a loss of confidence in
the Internal Market in business circles, with a consequent reduction in investment in
innovation and creation. Infringements of intellectual property rights appear to be
increasingly linked to organised crime. Increasing use of the Internet enables pirated products
to be distributed instantly around the globe. Effective enforcement of the substantive law on
intellectual property should be ensured by specific action at Community level.
Approximation of the legislation of the Member States in this field is therefore an essential
prerequisite for the proper functioning of the Internal Market.
(l0) The objective of this Directive is to approximate legislative systems so as to ensure a high,
equivalent and homogeneous level of protection in the Internal Market.
(11) This Directive does not aim to establish harmonised rules for judicial cooperation,
jurisdiction, the recognition and enforcement of decisions in civil and commercial matters, or
deal with applicable law. There are Community instruments which govern such matters in
general terms and are, in principle, equally applicable to intellectual property.
(12) This Directive should not affect the application of the rules of competition, and in particular
Articles 81 and 82 of the Treaty. The measures provided for in this Directive should not be
used to restrict unduly competition in a manner contrary to the Treaty.
(13) It is necessary to define the scope of this Directive as widely as possible in order to
encompass all the intellectual property rights covered by Community provisions in this field
and/or by the national law of the Member State concerned. Nevertheless, that requirement
does not affect the possibility, on the part of those Member States which so wish, to extend,
for internal purposes, the provisions of this Directive to include acts involving unfair
competition, including parasitic copies, or similar activities.
(14) The measures provided for in Articles 6(2), 8(1) and 9(2) need to be applied only in respect of
acts carried out on a commercial scale. This is without prejudice to the possibility for
Member States to apply those measures also in respect of other acts. Acts carried out on a
commercial scale are those carried out for direct or indirect economic or commercial
advantage; this would normally exclude acts carried out by end-consumers acting in good
faith.
(15) This Directive should not affect substantive law on intellectual property, Directive 95/46/EC
of 24 October 1995 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of
individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such
data \ Directive 1999/931EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of
13 December 1999 on a Community framework for electronic signatures 2 and
Directive 2000/311EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on
certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the
Internal Market 3.
(16) The provisions of this Directive should be without prejudice to the particular provisions for
the enforcement of rights and on exceptions in the domain of copyright and related rights set
out in Community instruments and notably those found in Council Directive 91/2501EEC of
14 May 1991 on the legal protection of computer programs 4 or in Directive 2001/291EC of
the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain
aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society 5.

(17) The measures, procedures and remedies provided for in this Directive should be determined in
each case in such a manner as to take due account of the specific characteristics of that case,
including the specific features of each intellectual property right and, where appropriate, the
intentional or unintentional character of the infringement.
(18) The persons entitled to request application of those measures, procedures and remedies should
be not only the rightholders but also persons who have a direct interest and legal standing in
so far as permitted by and in accordance with the applicable law, which may include
professional organisations in charge of the management ofthose rights or for the defence of
the collective and individual interests for which they are responsible.
(19) Since copyright exists from the creation of a work and does not require formal registration, it
is appropriate to adopt the rule laid down in Article 15 of the Berne Convention, which
establishes the presumption whereby the author of a literary or artistic work is regarded as
such if his name appears on the work. A similar presumption should be applied to the owners
of related rights since it is often the holder of a related right, such as a phonogram producer,
who will seek to defend rights and engage in fighting acts of piracy.
(20) Given that evidence is an element of paramount importance for establishing the infringement
of intellectual property rights, it is appropriate to ensure that effective means of presenting,
obtaining and preserving evidence are available. The procedures should have regard to the
rights of the defence and provide the necessary guarantees, including the protection of
confidential information. For infringements committed on a commercial scale it is also
important that the courts may order access, where appropriate, to banking, financial or
commercial documents under the control of the alleged infringer.
(21) Other measures designed to ensure a high level ofprotection exist in certain Member States
and should be made available in all the Member States. This is the case with the right of
information, which allows precise information to be obtained on the origin of the infringing
goods or services, the distribution channels and the identity of any third parties involved in
the infringement.
(22) It is also essential to provide for provisional measures for the immediate termination of
infringements, without awaiting a decision on the substance of the case, while observing the
rights of the defence, ensuring the proportionality of the provisional measures as appropriate
to the characteristics of the case in question and providing the guarantees needed to cover the
costs and the injury caused to the defendant by an unjustified request. Such measures are
particularly justified where any delay would cause irreparable harm to the holder of an
intellectual property right.
(23) Without prejudice to any other measures, procedures and remedies available, rightholders
should have the possibility of applying for an injunction against an intermediary whose
services are being used by a third party to infringe the rightholder's industrial property right.
The conditions and procedures relating to such injunctions should be left to the national law
of the Member States. As far as infringements of copyright and related rights are concerned,
a comprehensive level of harmonisation is already provided for in Directive 200 l/29/EC.
Article 8(3) of Directive 200l/29/EC should therefore not be affected by this Directive.
(24) Depending on the particular case, and if justified by the circumstances, the measures,
procedures and remedies to be provided for should include prohibitory measures aimed at
preventing further infringements of intellectual property rights. Moreover there should be
corrective measures, where appropriate at the expense of the infringer, such as the recall and
definitive removal from the channels of commerce, or destruction, of the infringing goods
and, in appropriate cases, of the materials and implements principally used in the creation or
manufacture of these goods. These corrective measures should take account of the interests of
third parties including, in particular, consumers and private parties acting in good faith.
(25) Where an infringement is committed unintentionally and without negligence and where the
corrective measures or injunctions provided for by this Directive would be disproportionate,
Member States should have the option of providing for the possibility, in appropriate cases, of
pecuniary compensation being awarded to the injured party as an alternative measure.
However, where the commercial use of counterfeit goods or the supply of services would
constitute an infringement of law other than intellectual property law or would be likely to
harm consumers, such use or supply should remain prohibited.
(26) With a view to compensating for the prejudice suffered as a result of an infringement
committed by an infringer who engaged in an activity in the knowledge, or with reasonable
grounds for knowing, that it would give rise to such an infringement, the amount of damages
awarded to the rightholder should take account of all appropriate aspects, such as loss of
earnings incurred by the rightholder, or unfair profits made by the infringer and, where
appropriate, any moral prejudice caused to the rightholder. As an alternative, for example
where it would be difficult to determine the amount of the actual prejudice suffered, the
amount of the damages might be derived from elements such as the royalties or fees which
would have been due if the infringer had requested authorisation to use the intellectual
property right in question. The aim is not to introduce an obligation to provide for punitive
damages but to allow for compensation based on an objective criterion while taking account
of the expenses incurred by the rightholder, such as the costs of identification and research.
(27) To act as a supplementary deterrent to future infringers and to contribute to the awareness of
the public at large, it is useful to publicise decisions in intellectual property infringement
cases.
(28) In addition to the civil and administrative measures, procedures and remedies provided for
under this Directive, criminal sanctions also constitute, in appropriate cases, a means of
ensuring the enforcement of intellectual property rights.
(29) Industry should take an active part in the fight against piracy and counterfeiting. The
development of codes of conduct in the circles directly affected is a supplementary means of
bolstering the regulatory framework. The Member States, in collaboration with the
Commission, should encourage the development of codes of conduct in general. Monitoring
of the manufacture of optical discs, particularly by means of an identification code embedded
in discs produced in the Community, helps to limit infringements of intellectual property
rights in this sector, which suffers from piracy on a large scale. However, these technical
protection measures should not be misused to protect markets and prevent parallel imports.
(30) In order to facilitate the uniform application of this Directive, it is appropriate to provide for
systems of cooperation and the exchange of infonnation between Member States, on the one
hand, and between the Member States and the Commission on the other, in particular by
creating a network of correspondents designated by the Member States and by providing
regular reports assessing the application of this Directive and the effectiveness of the
measures taken by the various national bodies.
(31) Since, for the reasons already described, the objective of this Directive can best be achieved at
Community level, the Community may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of
subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty. In accordance with the principle of
proportionality as set out in that Article, this Directive does not go beyond what is necessary
in order to achieve that objective.
(32) This Directive respects the fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised in
particular by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. In particular, this
Directive seeks to ensure full respect for intellectual property, in accordance with
Article 17(2) of that Charter,

HAVE ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE:
 
CHAPTER I
Objective and scope

Article 1
Subject-matter
This Directive concerns the measures, procedures and remedies necessary to ensure the
enforcement of intellectual property rights. For the purposes of this Directive, the term "intellectual
property rights" includes industrial property rights.
Article 2
Scope
1. Without prejudice to the means which are or may be provided for in Community or national
legislation, in so far as those means may be more favourable for rightholders, the measures,
procedures and remedies provided for by this Directive shall apply, in accordance with Article 3, to
any infringement of intellectual property rights as provided for by Community law and/or by the
national law of the Member State concerned.
2. This Directive shall be without prejudice to the specific provisions on the enforcement of
rights and on exceptions contained in Community legislation concerning copyright and rights
related to copyright, notably those found in Directive 911250lEEC and, in particular, Article 7
thereof or in Directive 2001l29IEC and, in particular, Articles 2 to 6 and Article 8 thereof.
3. This Directive shall not affect:
(a) the Community provisions governing the substantive law on intellectual property,
Directive 95/46IEC, Directive 1999/93IEC or Directive 2000/31IEC, in general, and
Articles 12 to 15 of Directive 2000/31IEC in particular;
(b) Member States' international obligations and notably the TRIPS Agreement, including those
relating to criminal procedures and penalties;
(c) any national provisions in Member States relating to criminal procedures or penalties in
respect of infringement of intellectual property rights.
CHAPTER II
Measures, procedures and remedies
Section 1
General provisions
Article 3
General obligation
1. Member States shall provide for the measures, procedures and remedies necessary to ensure the
enforcement of the intellectual property rights covered by this Directive. Those measures,
procedures and remedies shall be fair and equitable and shall not be unnecessarily complicated or
costly, or entail unreasonable time-limits or unwarranted delays.
2. Those measures, procedures and remedies shall also be effective, proportionate and dissuasive
and shall be applied in such a manner as to avoid the creation of barriers to legitimate trade and to
provide for safeguards against their abuse.
Article 4
Persons entitled to apply for the application of the measures, procedures and remedies
1. Member States shall recognise as persons entitled to seek application of the measures,
procedures and remedies referred to in this Chapter:
(a) the holders of intellectual property rights, in accordance with the provisions of the applicable
law,
(b) all other persons authorised to use those rights, in particular licensees, in so far as permitted
by and in accordance with the provisions of the applicable law,
(c) intellectual property collective rights management bodies which are regularly recognised as
having a right to represent holders of intellectual property rights, in so far as permitted by and
in accordance with the provisions of the applicable law,
(d) professional defence bodies which are regularly recognised as having a right to represent
holders of intellectual property rights, in so far as permitted by and in accordance with the
provisions of the applicable law.
Article 5
Presumption of authorship or ownership
For the purposes of applying the measures, procedures and remedies provided for in this Directive,
(a) for the author of a literary or artistic work, in the absence of proof to the contrary, to be
regarded as such, and consequently to be entitled to institute infringement proceedings, it shall
be sufficient for his name to appear on the work in the usual manner;
(b) the provision under (a) shall apply mutatis mutandis to the holders of rights related to
copyright with regard to their protected subject matter.
Section 2
Evidence
Article 6
Evidence
1. Member States shall ensure that, on application by a party which has presented reasonably
available evidence sufficient to support its claims, and has, in substantiating those claims, specified
evidence which lies in the control of the opposing party, the competent judicial authorities may
order that such evidence be presented by the opposing party, subject to the protection of
confidential information. For the purposes of this paragraph, Member States may provide that a
reasonable sample of a substantial number of copies of a work or any other protected object be
considered by the competent judicial authorities to constitute reasonable evidence.
2. Under the same conditions, in the case of an infringement committed on a commercial scale
Member States shall take such measures as are necessary to enable the competent judicial
authorities to order, where appropriate, on application by a party, the communication of banking,
financial or commercial documents under the control of the opposing party, subject to the protection
of confidential information.
Article 7
Measures for preserving evidence
1. Member States shall ensure that, even before the commencement of proceedings on the merits
of the case, the competent judicial authorities may, on application by a party who has presented
reasonably available evidence to support his claims that his intellectual property right has been
infringed or is about to be infringed, order prompt and effective provisional measures to preserve
relevant evidence in respect of the alleged infringement, subject to the protection of confidential
information. Such measures may include the detailed description, with or without the taking of
samples, or the physical seizure of the infringing goods, and, in appropriate cases, the materials and
implements used in the production and/or distribution of these goods and the documents relating
thereto. Those measures shall be taken, if necessary without the other party having been heard, in
particular where any delay is likely to cause irreparable harm to the rightholder or where there is a
demonstrable risk of evidence being destroyed.
Where measures to preserve evidence are adopted without the other party having been heard, the
parties affected shall be given notice, without delay after the execution of the measures at the latest.
A review, including a right to be heard, shall take place upon request of the parties affected with a
view to deciding, within a reasonable period after the notification of the measures, whether the
measures shall be modified, revoked or confirmed.
2. Member States shall ensure that the measures to preserve evidence may be subject to the
lodging by the applicant of adequate security or an equivalent assurance intended to ensure
compensation for any prejudice suffered by the defendant as provided for in paragraph 4.
3. Member States shall ensure that the measures to preserve evidence are revoked or otherwise
cease to have effect, upon request of the defendant, without prejudice to the damages which may be
claimed, if the applicant does not institute, within a reasonable period, proceedings leading to a
decision on the merits of the case before the competent judicial authority, the period to be
determined by the judicial authority ordering the measures where the law of a Member State so
permits or, in the absence of such determination, within a period not exceeding 20 working days or
31 calendar days, whichever is the longer.
4. Where the measures to preserve evidence are revoked, or where they lapse due to any act or
omission by the applicant, or where it is subsequently found that there has been no infringement or
threat of infringement of an intellectual property right, the judicial authorities shall have the
authority to order the applicant, upon request of the defendant, to provide the defendant appropriate
compensation for any injury caused by those measures.
5. Member States may take measures to protect witnesses' identity.
Section 3
Right of information
Article 8
Right of information
1. Member States shall ensure that, in the context of proceedings concerning an infringement of
an intellectual property right and in response to a justified and proportionate request of the claimant,
the competent judicial authorities may order that information on the origin and distribution
networks of the goods or services which infringe an intellectual property right be provided by the
infringer and!or any other person who:
(a) was found in possession of the infringing goods on a commercial scale;
(b) was found to be using the infringing services on a commercial scale;
(c) was found to be providing on a commercial scale services used in infringing activities; or
(d) was indicated by the person referred to in point (a), (b) or (c) as being involved in the
production, manufacture or distribution of the goods or the provision of the services.
2. The information referred to in paragraph 1 shall, as appropriate, comprise:
(a) the names and addresses of the producers, manufacturers, distributors, suppliers and other
previous holders of the goods or services, as well as the intended wholesalers and retailers;
(b) information on the quantities produced, manufactured, delivered, received or ordered, as well
as the price obtained for the goods or services in question.
3. Paragraphs 1 and 2 shall apply without prejudice to other statutory provisions which:
(a) grant the rightholder rights to receive fuller information;
(b) govern the u~e in civil or criminal proceedings of the information communicated pursuant to
this Article;
(c) govern responsibility for misuse of the right of information; or
(d) afford an opportunity for refusing to provide information which would force the person
referred to in paragraph 1 to admit to his own participation or that of his close relatives in an
infringement of an intellectual property right; or
(e) govern the protection of confidentiality of information sources or the processing of personal
data.
Section 4
Provisional and precautionary measures
Article 9
Provisional and precautionary measures
1. Member States shall ensure that the judicial authorities may, at the request of the applicant:
(a) issue against the alleged infringer an interlocutory injunction intended to prevent any
imminent infringement of an intellectual property right, or to forbid, on a provisional basis
and subject, where appropriate, to a recurring penalty payment where provided for by national
law, the continuation of the alleged infringements ofthat right, or to make such continuation
subject to the lodging of guarantees intended to ensure the compensation of the rightholder;
an interlocutory injunction may also be issued, under the same conditions, against an
intermediary whose services are being used by a third party to infringe an intellectual property
right; injunctions against intermediaries whose services are used by a third party to infringe a
copyright or a related right are covered by Directive 2001/291EC;
(b) order the seizure or delivery up of the goods suspected of infringing an intellectual property
right so as to prevent their entry into or movement within the channels of commerce.
2. In the case of an infringement committed on a commercial scale, the Member States shall
ensure that, if the injured party demonstrates circumstances likely to endanger the recovery of
damages, the judicial authorities may order the precautionary seizure of the movable and
immovable property of the alleged infringer, including the blocking of his bank accounts and other
assets. To that end, the competent authorities may order the communication of bank, financial or
commercial documents, or appropriate access to the relevant information.
3. The judicial authorities shall, in respect of the measures referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2,
have the authority to require the applicant to provide any reasonably available evidence in order to
satisfy themselves with a sufficient degree of certainty that the applicant is the rightholder and that
the applicant's right is being infringed, or that such infringement is imminent.
4. Member States shall ensure that the provisional measures referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2
may, in appropriate cases, be taken without the defendant having been heard, in particular where
any delay would cause irreparable harm to the rightholder. In that event, the parties shall be so
informed without delay after the execution of the measures at the latest.
A review, including a right to be heard, shall take place upon request of the defendant with a view
to deciding, within a reasonable time after notification of the measures, whether those measures
shall be modified, revoked or confirmed.
5. Member States shall ensure that the provisional measures referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 are
revoked or otherwise cease to have effect, upon request of the defendant, if the applicant does not
institute, within a reasonable period, proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the case
before the competent judicial authority, the period to be determined by the judicial authority
ordering the measures where the law of a Member State so permits or, in the absence of such
determination, within a period not exceeding 20 working days or 31 calendar days, whichever is the
longer.
6. The competent judicial authorities may make the provisional measures referred to in
paragraphs 1 and 2 subject to the lodging by the applicant of adequate security or an equivalent
assurance intended to ensure compensation for any prejudice suffered by the defendant as provided
for in paragraph 7.
7. Where the provisional measures are revoked or where they lapse due to any act or omission
by the applicant, or where it is subsequently found that there has been no infringement or threat of
infringement of an intellectual property right, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to
order the applicant, upon request of the defendant, to provide the defendant appropriate
compensation for any injury caused by those measures.
Section 5
Measures resulting from a decision on the merits of the case
Article 10
Corrective measures
1. Without prejudice to any damages due to the rightholder by reason of the infringement, and
without compensation of any sort, Member States shall ensure that the competent judicial
authorities may order, at the request of the applicant, that appropriate measures be taken with regard
to goods that they have found to be infringing an intellectual property right and, in appropriate
cases, with regard to materials and implements principally used in the creation or manufacture of
those goods. Such measures shall include:
(a) recall from the channels of commerce,
(b) definitive removal from the channels of commerce, or
(c) destruction.
2. The judicial authorities shall order that those measures be carried out at the expense of the
infringer, unless particular reasons are invoked for not doing so.
3. In considering a request for corrective measures, the need for proportionality between the
seriousness of the infringement and the remedies ordered as well as the interests of third parties
shall be taken into account.
Article 11
Injunctions
Member States shall ensure that, where a judicial decision is taken finding an infringement of an
intellectual property right, the judicial authorities may issue against the infringer an injunction
aimed at prohibiting the continuation of the infringement. Where provided for by national law,
non-compliance with an injunction shall, where appropriate, be subject to a recurring penalty
payment, with a view to ensuring compliance. Member States shall also ensure that rightholders
are in a position to apply for an injunction against intermediaries whose services are used by a
third party to infringe an intellectual property right, without prejudice to Article 8(3) of
Directive 2001/29/EC.
Article 12
Alternative measures
Member States may provide that, in appropriate cases and at the request of the person liable to be
subject to the measures provided for in this Section, the competent judicial authorities may order
pecuniary compensation to be paid to the injured party instead of applying the measures provided
for in this Section if that person acted unintentionally and without negligence, if execution of the
measures in question would cause him disproportionate harm and if pecuniary compensation to the
injured party appears reasonably satisfactory.
Section 6
Damages and legal costs
Article 13
Damages
1. Member States shall ensure that the competent judicial authorities, on application of the injured
party, order the infringer who knowingly, or with reasonable grounds to know, engaged in an
infringing activity, to pay the rightholder damages appropriate to the actual prejudice suffered by
him as a result of the infringement.
When the judicial authorities set the damages:
(a) they shall take into account all appropriate aspects, such as the negative economic
consequences, including lost profits, which the injured party has suffered, any unfair profits
made by the infringer and, in appropriate cases, elements other than economic factors, such as
the moral prejudice caused to the rightholder by the infringement;
or
(b) as an alternative to (a), they may, in appropriate cases, set the damages as a lump sum on the
basis of elements such as at least the amount of royalties or fees which would have been due
if the infringer had requested authorisation to use the intellectual property right in question.
2. Where the infringer did not knowingly, or with reasonable grounds to know, engage in
infringing activity, Member States may lay down that the judicial authorities may order the
recovery of profits or the payment of damages, which may be pre-established.
Article 14
Legal costs
Member States shall ensure that reasonable and proportionate legal costs and other expenses
incurred by the successful party shall, as a general rule, be borne by the unsuccessful party, unless
equity does not allow this.
Section 7
Publicity measures
Article 15
Publication ofjudicial decisions
Member States shall ensure that, in legal proceedings instituted for infringement of an intellectual
property right, the judicial authorities may order, at the request of the applicant and at the expense
of the infringer, appropriate measures for the dissemination of the information concerning the
decision, including displaying the decision and publishing it in full or in part. Member States may
provide for other additional publicity measures which are appropriate to the particular
circumstances, including prominent advertising.
CHAPTER III
Sanctions by Member States
Article 16
Sanctions by Member States
Without prejudice to the civil and administrative measures, procedures and remedies laid down by
this Directive, Member States may apply other appropriate sanctions in cases where intellectual
property rights have been infringed.
CHAPTER IV
Codes of conduct and administrative cooperation
Article 17
Codes of conduct
Member States shall encourage:
(a) the development by trade or professional associations or organisations of codes of conduct at
Community level aimed at contributing towards the enforcement of the intellectual property
rights, particularly by recommending the use on optical discs of a code enabling the
identification of the origin of their manufacture;
(b) the submission to the Commission of draft codes of conduct at national and Community level
and of any evaluations of the application of these codes of conduct.
Article 18
Assessment
1. Three years after the date laid down in Article 20(1), each Member State shall submit to the
Commission a report on the implementation of this Directive.
On the basis of those reports, the Commission shall draw up a report on the application of this
Directive, including an assessment of the effectiveness of the measures taken, as well as an
evaluation of its impact on innovation and the development of the information society. That report
shall then be transmitted to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and
Social Committee. It shall be accompanied, if necessary and in the light of developments in the
Community legal order, by proposals for amendments to this Directive.
2. Member States shall provide the Commission with all the aid and assistance it may need when
drawing up the report referred to in the second subparagraph of paragraph 1.
Article 19
Exchange of information and correspondents
For the purpose of promoting cooperation, including the exchange of information, among Member
States and between Member States and the Commission, each Member State shall designate one or
more national correspondents for any question relating to the implementation of the measures
provided for by this Directive. It shall communicate the details of the national correspondent(s) to
the other Member States and to the Commission.
CHAPTER V
Final provisions
Article 20
Implementation
1. Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions
necessary to comply with this Directive by ... '. They shall forthwith inform the Commission
thereof.
When Member States adopt these measures, they shall contain a reference to this Directive or shall
be accompanied by such reference on the occasion of their official publication. The methods of
making such reference shall be laid down by Member States.
2. Member States shall communicate to the Commission the texts of the provisions of national
law which they adopt in the field governed by this Directive. 

Article 21
Entry into force
This Directive shall enter into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication in the
Official Journal of the European Union.
Article 22
Addressees
This Directive is addressed to the Member States.
Done at Strasbourg, 29.4.2004.
For the European Parliament
The President
P.COX
For the Council
The President
M.McDOWELL

 

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